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 Post subject: Chilli
PostPosted: Tue Aug 05, 2008 6:28 am 
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Origion of Chilli, Chilli Pepper, Chilli photo gallery and many more things


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 Post subject: Re: Chilli
PostPosted: Tue Aug 05, 2008 6:28 am 
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Origin of Chilli

The origin of chillies is believed to be as old as 7000 B.C. used in Mexico. Chillies were grown and cultivated from 3500 BC. Mexicans used it to spice up their food. Chilli was brought to the rest of the world by Christopher Columbus who discovered America in 1493. Christopher had set from Spain to reach India to bring spices such as pepper back to his country. Christopher not only mistook America for India, but also mistook chilli as the black pepper. That is how the chilli got the name ‘chile pepper.’ He took chile pepper back to Spain where it became a very famous spice.

Chilli spread to rest of the European countries. Chilli became the indispensable spice in European cuisines. Chilli became popular in Portuguese. In 1498, the Portuguese explorer Vasco-da-Gama reached Indian shores bringing with him the pungent spice.

Chilli seeds were brought to North America for cultivation. In 1888, experiments began for cross breeding of chilli plants. New breeds of chilli plants were evolved. In 1906, a new variety of chilli, Anaheim, was grown. Soon, more chilli varieties were evolved such as strong breed of Mexican chile.

In 1912, Wilbur L. Scoville, a pharmacist found a new method to measure the pungency of the chilli. This new method came to be known as Scoville Organoleptic Test. Unlike, earlier methods, the Scoville test was subjective and accurate.

There are more than 400 different varieties of chillies found all over the world. The world’s hottest chilli “Naga Jolokia” is cultivated in hilly terrain of Assam in a small town Tezpur, India. Chilli became extremely popular in India after it was first brought to India by Vasco-da-Gama. Chilli found its way in ayurveda, the traditional Indian medical system. According to ayurveda, chilli has many medicinal properties such as stimulating good digestion and endorphins, a natural pain killer to relieve pains.

Today, it is unimaginable to think of India cuisine without the hot spice, chilli. India has become world’s largest producer and exporter of chilli, exporting to USA, Canada, UK, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Malaysia, Germany and many countries across the world. It contributes 25% of world’s total production of chilli. Some of the hottest chillies are grown in India. Indian chillies have been dominating international chilli market. Majority of chilli grown in India is cultivated in states such as Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Orissa.


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 Post subject: Re: Chilli
PostPosted: Tue Aug 05, 2008 6:30 am 
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Varieties of Chillies

There are more than 400 varieties of chilli available all over the world. They differ in pungency, size, shape and colors. Some of the main types of chillies are:
Aji | Anaheim | Bell Peppers | Bolita | Cascabel | Cayenne | Chiltepin | Habanero | Jalapeno | Jamaican Hot | Mirasol | Paprika | Pasilla | Pimento | Poblano | Scotch Bonnet | Serrano

Aji
Aji is South American term in used for chilli. It is one of the hottest flavored chile pepper. Generally, aji is bright yellow, red, orange, or purple in color. It is also called as "Yellow Chile" or "Yellow Peruvian chile."



Anaheim
Anaheim peppers are blunt nosed, long and narrow with green or reddish color. Anaheim is available in Mexico. The pungency of Anaheim depends on where they are grown; however, they are moderately hot.


Bell peppers
Bell peppers are mild in pungency and originated about 5000 B.C. from South America . Bell peppers are received their name from the bell shape and available in bright colors of green, red, orange, yellow, purple, brown and black. The green and orange bell peppers are bitter to taste. Red and yellow peppers are sweet and tangy to taste.


Bolita
Bolita are dark red, oval shaped fresh chilli fruit with very hot pungency. When dried, the bolita are called Cascabel.


Cascabel
Also called "Bola Chile ," cascabel chillies are dried form of bolita chillies. Cascabel is a Spanish word which means "round bells" or "rattle" found in Michoacán in Mexico . Cascabel fruit is round and brown or red in color with mild to medium in pungency.


Cayenne
Cayenne chilli has been cultivated and included in food from as far as 4,000 years ago. Columbus brought Cayenne to Portugal . Cayenne is long and slender in shape with dark green color which matures to bright red. It extremely pungent to taste and used widely in India and other Asian countries. The red Cayennes are used to make chilli powder. There are many varieties of cayenne including hot Portugal , large red thick, long red slim, ring of fire, super cayenne, and a relatively new Charleston Hot. The Charleston hot cayenne is considered to be extremely pungent and has attractive fruit.


Chiltepin or Piquin
Chiltepin got its name from the Nahuatl Mexican language "Chilli" and "tecpintl" meaning "flea chilli." It is believed to be the oldest and original form of all the chilli species available now. Chiltepin has tiny round shaped fruit and are extremely hot in pungency. It is also known as "Chiltecpin" or "Tepin."

Habanero
Habanero chillies in Spanish means "the one from Havana " though not used in Havana . Habanero is commonly used in Mexico and Yucatan and considered hottest chilli. The fruits of Habanero are yellow, red, or white in color. The chilli pods of red savina habanero chilli are considered as hottest in the world which may even cause tongue blistering if eaten.


Jalapeno
Named after the city Xalapa of Mexico, Jalapenos are extremely popular in Mexico and USA . Jalapenos are cylindrical, oval shaped with very thick flesh with green color which turns in to red color when ripe. The thick outer part of Jalapeno chilli conceals the pungency of inside. The Mexican cuisine includes "chipotle" which is smoked and dried Jalapenos.


Jamaican Hot
The name of the chilli suggests that Jamaica is the origin of Jamaican Hot chillies. The chilli is green when immature and it matures to yellow color with extremely hot in pungency.


Mirasol
Mirasol are extremely beautiful to look at with its rich smooth shinning red skin, oval shaped with high pungency. When dried it become red chilli known as "guajillo" or "puya." The dried mirasol which has medium pungency.


Paprika
Paprika belongs to Capsicum annum originated from Mexico and used widely in America , California , Spain , and Hungary . The paprika is usually dried and grinded to give seasoning powder having pungent sweet smelling characteristic. The bright red round or elongated shaped fruit of paprika varies in pungency from mild to hot and used extensively in Hungarian cuisine.


PasillaPasilla chilli is long thin, with green color which turns dark brown when matures and when dried has raisin-texture. The ripe pasilla is called as "Chilaca" or "Chiles Negro" and is available in Mexico . The pungency of pasilla is from mild to medium.


Pimento
The Spanish paprika is called as pimento chilli. They are also called cherry pepper as the fruit is large heart-shaped red pepper with sweet, aromatic, and succulent fruit. The pimentos are extremely mild in pungency and are stuffed in green olives.


Poblano
The poblano chillies mean "pepper from Pueblo " since the poblano originated from Pueblo in Mexico . Poblano chillies are heart-shaped green in color when unripe and turns red or brown when ripens. The pungency ranges from mild to moderate. The dried poblanos are called with two different names Mulato and Ancho. The mulatos are sweeter than ancho.


Scot's Bonnet or Scotch Bonnet
Closely related to Jamaican hot and habanero, these chillies are equally hot in pungency. Scotch bonnet or Scot's bonnet are irregular in shape with yellow, orange, or red color. It is used frequently in Jamaican cuisine. Scotch bonnet chillies are so hot that when taken will cause blisters to the tongue, dizziness, and severe heartburn.


SerranoSerrano chillies means highland or mountain are small, round in shape with slight pointed at the end. Serrano chillies originated from the foothills of Puebla in Mexico. They are smooth dark green when unripe and turns scarlet red, brown, orange, and then yellow as they ripen with high pungency.


Last edited by Manju on Tue Aug 05, 2008 6:34 am, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: Chilli
PostPosted: Tue Aug 05, 2008 6:32 am 
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Indian Chilli Varieties
Varieties of Chilli Found In India
Chilli was introduced in India by the great Portuguese explorer Vasco-da-Gama. The spice chilli blended well in Indian cooking. Chilli became extremely popular in India. The climate in India was favorable to cultivate chillies and soon many varieties of chilli were available in India. Places like Andra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Kashmir became famous for different varieties in chilli.
Naga Jolokia | Birdseye or Dhani Chillies | Byadagi or Kaddi Chillies | Ellachipur Sanman Chillies | Guntur Sanman Chillies | Hindpur Chillies | Jwala Chillies | Kanthari Chillies | Kashmiri Mirch | Mundu Chillies or Gundu Molzuka | Nalcheti Chillies | Tomato Chilli or Warangal Chappatta


Naga Jolokia
The Mexican chilli Red Savina Habanero was considered as hottest chilli with 557,000 Scoville units. The hottest chilli on earth is found in India. The Naga Jolokia or also called "Tezpur Chilli" has been proved by the scientists are the hottest chilli in the world with 8,55,000 Scoville units.


Birdseye or Dhani Chillies
Birdseye is also called as African Devil Chile. Birdseye chilli is tiny, green and when matured the color changes to bright red. The pungency varies from the place and environmental condition is receives. It is widely available in African countries like Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Malawi and also in other countries including India, China, Mexico, and Papua New Guinea .



Byadagi or Kaddi Chillies
Byadagi chillies are grown in Goa and Dharwar in Karnataka. These chillies are also called Kaddi chillies and when dried, the skin is wrinkled red in color with aromatic mild pungency. The harvesting season of these chillies are from January to May.


Ellachipur Sanman Chillies
Ellachipur Sannam chillies are found in Amravati district, Maharashtra . The ellachipur chillies are dark red in color when in dry state with very hot pungency. The best time to grow is from September to December.


Guntur Sanman Chillies
Guntur Sanman Chillies are cultivated in Guntur , Warangal , Khamman district of Andra Pradesh. The Guntur chillies are long with thick red skin with very high pungency. The best times to harvest these chillies are from December to May.


Hindpur Chillies
Hindpur chillies are found in Andhra Pradesh in India . These chillies are extremely pungent and red in color. The harvesting season for these chillies is from December to March.


Jwala Chillies
The most popular form of chilli in India , Jwala, is long, slender with when unripe has green color and turns to red in ripe stage. Jwala means "Volcano" in Hindi and are extremely pungent. Jwala is found in Kheda and Mehsana in Gujarat .


Kanthari Chillies
The Kanthari chillies are grown in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. They are small, ivory white in color. They are extremely pungent.


Kashmiri Mirch
One of much in demand chilli in India is Kashmiri Mirch. Though there is lot of wrong claims, the true Kashmir Mirch is grown in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir . It has smooth shinning skin and fleshy with dark red in color. They are mild in pungency and have a fruit like flavor.


Mundu Chillies or Gundu Molzuka
Mundu chillies are found in Tamil Nadu and Anantpur in Andhra Pradesh. They are roundish fruit with moderately pungent with yellowish red color. Mundu is popularly called as 'Gundu Molzuka' meaning 'fat chilli' in Tamil Nadu.


Nalcheti Chillies
Nalcheti chillies are grown in Nagpur , Maharashtra . The Nalcheti chillies are long, red in color when dried with high pungency.


Tomato Chilli or Warangal Chappatta
Tomato chillies are found in Warangal , Khamman, and Godavari district of Andra Pradesh. These chllies are short, dark red in color when dried with moderate pungency.


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 Post subject: Re: Chilli
PostPosted: Tue Aug 05, 2008 6:36 am 
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Chilli Powder

Chilli Powder Mirch PowderEver since its introduction, chilli powder has become basic ingredient in Indian culinary. Chilli powder adds flavor to the food. Chilli powder has many beneficial properties, making it an important part in Ayurvedic medicines to fight many diseases, destroys harmful toxins and stimulates gastric juices that help in digesting food. It also helps in clearing nasal congestion, relieves throat infection, and acts as painkiller in muscle spasms.

The chilli powder used in India is completely different from the Mexican version of chilli powders.

Mexican Chilli Powder
The Mexican chilli powders are mixtures of spices such as dried grounded chilli, cumin, garlic, and oregano. This spice is used included in Mexican cuisine.

Indian Chilli Powder
The chilli powder used in South Asian countries such as India is made by drying and grounding the red chilli to give highly pungent red powder. The pungency in the chilli powder varies according to the chilli used. Generally in India, small amount of oil is added to the chilli powder. This will help the chilli powder to retain its red color which will not fade away with time. The mixture will also help in preserving the chilli powder.


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 Post subject: Re: Chilli
PostPosted: Tue Aug 05, 2008 6:36 am 
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Benefits of Chilli

Chillies are excellent source of Vitamin, A, B, C and E with minerals like molybdenum, manganese, folate, potassium, thiamin, and copper. Chilli contains seven times more vitamin C than orange.

Ever since its introduction to India in 1498, chillies have been included in Ayurvedic medicines and used as tonic to ward off many diseases. Chillies are good for slimming down as it burns the calorie easily. Chillies stimulate the appetite, help to clear the lungs, and stimulate digestive system.

* Capsaicin : Chillies have vitamin C and Vitamin A containing beta-carotenoids which are powerful antioxidant. These antioxidants destroy free radical bodies. Usually, these radical bodies may travel in the body and cause huge amounts of damage to cells. These radical bodies could damage nerve and blood vessel in diabetes.

The antioxidants present in the chilli wipe out the radical bodies that could build up cholesterol causing major heart diseases such as atherosclerosis.

Chillies have antioxidants that can destroy cholesterol which could cause major disease like atherosclerosis and other heart diseases. Other disease like cataract and arthritis like osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It also dilates airway of lungs which reduces asthma and wheezing.

* Detoxicants : Chillies acts as detoxifiers as they removes waste products from our body and increases supply nutrients to the tissues. It also acts as gastrointestinal detoxicants helping in digestion of food.

* Pain killer : Chillies stimulates the release of endorphins that are natural pain killers. It relieves pain caused due to shingles (Herpes Zoster), bursitis, diabetic neuropathy and muscle spasm in shoulders, and extremities. It also helps in relieving arthritic pains in the extremities.

* Antibiotic : Chillies brings fresh blood to the site of the infection. The fresh blood fights infection. The white blood cells and leukocytes present in the fresh blood fights viruses.

* Brain : Capsaicin stimulates brain to excrete endorphin and gives a sense of pleasure when ingested. This is the reason people get addicted to chilli.

* Cancer : It has been noted that vitamin C, beta-carotene and folic acid found in chilli reduces the risk of colon cancer. Chillies such as red pepper have cartonoid lycopene, which prevents cancer disease.

* Heart Attack : Chillies have vitamin B6 and folic acid. The vitamin B reduces high homocysteine level. High homocysteine levels have been shown to cause damage to blood vessels and are associated with a greatly increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It also converts homocysteine into other molecules which is beneficial to lower cholesterol level.

* Lung disease : Chillies gives relief from nasal congestion by increasing the metabolism. It also dilates airway of lungs which reduces asthma and wheezing. It relieves chronic congestion in people who are heavy drinkers.

Cigarette smoke contains benzopyrene which destroys the vitamin A in the body. The vitamin A present in chilli reduces inflammation of lungs and emphysema caused due to cigarette smoking.


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 Post subject: Re: Chilli
PostPosted: Tue Aug 05, 2008 6:38 am 
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Why is chilli hot to taste?Chilli is hot and stimulating with very less aroma when eaten. Chilli contains capsaicin, an alkaloid substance which makes chilli hot to taste. Capsaicin is present in chilli seeds and membranes. When chilli powder is swallowed, capsaicin makes the brain to release a neurotransmitter called substance P. This makes brain think that the body is in pain making body respond to chilli. The heart beats rapidly and the natural painkiller endorphin is secreted.


Which is the hottest chilli in the world? Where is it found?
The hottest chilli in the world is the “Naga Jolokia” which read 855,000 in the Scoville Scale. Naga Jolokia has replaced Mexican chilli Red Savina Habanero which scales 557,000 in Scoville units. The Naga Jolokia is found in hilly terrain Tezpur town of Assam in India.


What is Scoville Scale?
Scoville Scale is a method of finding the heat of the chilli. This method was invented by a chemist, Wilbur Scoville in 1912. This is a subjective test where the capsaicin extracted from chilli is soaked in alcohol. The soaked extract is later mixed with sweetened water and given to the human tasters to determine if there is pungency in the chilli. Pure capsaicin scales 16,000,000 Scoville units.


What is the origin of the chilli?
Chilli was used in Mexico as early as 7000 BC. The chilli was brought to rest of the world when the Italian Spanish navigator Christopher Columbus discovered America. He mistook the chilli for pepper and took it to Spain which later spread to rest of the world.


When was chilli introduced in India?
In May 28, 1498, Chilli was brought to India by the Portuguese explorer Vasco-da-Gama. Soon chilli became an important ingredient in Indian cuisine.


What are Mexican Ristras?
The Mexican Ristras is the oldest traditional method of drying the chillies. Mexicans tie the chillies with cotton string also called ristras. There are many different methods of making Mexican ristras. The chillies could be tied in a cluster, two three chillies, or just single chilli per knot. When hung Mexican ristras look so beautiful, that it is used for decorative purpose too.


How to dry chillies?
You can lay out the chillies in sun. As the sun does not dry the chillies completely, it is good to smoke to preserve them.


How to preserve chillies for longer time?
You can dry, freeze, or smoke the chillies to preserve them. Do not forget to break the stalks. This will preserve both green chilli and red chilli for longer time. You can store them in air tight container and keep it away from heat. Chillies can also be preserved by canning them. Green chillies can be preserved and prevented from turning it red by removing the stalk and storing them in dry bags.


The color of dried and grounded chilli powder fades away after few days. How to preserve the color of chilli powder for longer time?
To preserve the color of the chilli, you can add little groundnut oil to the chilli powder. This will keep the red color of the chilli powder for longer period. A pinch of asafoetida or raw salt can preserve chilli powder.


How to prevent the throat irritation while frying the chilli powder?
Add little salt to prevent throat burning.


What is the remedy if I have burned my mouth from eating too much of chilli?
Milk, Milk cream, curd, and other dairy products will reduce the burning sensation in your mouth. Drinking water will not help the situation.


How to reduce the burning sensation caused by chilli or chilli powder while handling them?
Apply oil to your hands before cutting the chillies. If you have not used oil and feel burning sensation then it is good to wash them with sugar and tamarind.


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 Post subject: Re: Chilli
PostPosted: Tue Aug 05, 2008 6:40 am 
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Chilli Facts - also called Chili, chile, chilly, chily, Mirchi, chile pepper, Aji, Paprika

General Facts

* When landed in South America, Columbus discovered chilli and mistook it for pepper, naming it "Chile Pepper."

* Chilli was used from 7000 BC in Mexico and was cultivated from 3500 BC.

* There are nearly 400 Varieties of chilli.

* There is great confusion in the spelling of the chilli. In USA, it is called chile or chile pepper; in UK, it is known as chilli or chili; and in India, it is known as chilli, or mirchi (Hindi), marchu (Gujarati), and molzhukai (Tamil).

* Fishes could not feel pungency of the chilli because they do not have pain receptors.

* Chillies belong to same family as tomatoes and potatoes.

* India is largest producer of chilli.

Chilli Pungency

* The pungency of the chilli is due to capsaicin present in the membrane placenta.

* To store and make the chilli powder more pungent, mix it well with oil.

* The hottest chilli 'Naga Jolokia' in the world is found in Tezpur, India. It is 855,000 in Scoville Scale.

* The chilli's pungency is measured by Scoville scale which was named after Wilbur Scoville. With invention of computers, the pungency of chilli can be measured by HPLC.

* To get rid of burning feeling, it is advisable to take fat or greasy content like milk, curd, sugar, or ice cream. Drinking water will not relieve the burning of your mouth because capsaicin is insoluble in water.


Medicinal Value

* capsaicin is used for treatment for many diseases like arthritis.

* When chilli is eaten, it makes the brain to release endorphins, a natural painkiller present in the body. The endorphin lowers blood pressure and helps to fight against cancer.

* Chilli contains lots of vitamin A, vitamin B, and vitamin C

* Sore throat, varicose ulcers, and laryngitis can be cured by using antibacterial chilli. Man made capsaicin called "Guafenesein" is used in cough syrups.

* Chilli helps cure many diseases like blood pleasure, insomnia, hay fever, flu.


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 Post subject: Re: Chilli
PostPosted: Tue Aug 05, 2008 6:46 am 
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Chilli Pepper - also called Chili, chile, chilly, chily, Mirchi, chile pepper, Aji, Paprika

Chilli is the fruit of plant belonging to Capsicum genus. Chilli is one of the most spices garnishing dishes.

Family : Solanaceae Genus : Capsicum

Species : Capsicum annum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense

Chilli is fruit of plants belonging to Capsicum genus and Solanaceae family. Capsicum is derived from the Greek word "Kapsimo" meaning "to bite." When eaten, it gives a burning sensation.

Chilli originates from South America. In search of spices, Christopher Columbus set his journey from Portugal. However, Christopher Columbus landed in South America. He found that the origins of South America used chilli. Columbus named them as "peppers" because they were similar in taste as black peppers. After the discovery of the spice, chilli replaced black pepper as prime spices in the culinary.

When chili pepper was brought to Spain, Dieogo Alvarez Chanca, a Spanish physician found that chilli had medicinal value. Chilli was believed to cure disease and used as pain killers. From Spain, chilli spread to rest of Europe and soon spread to South Asian countries like India and China. Chilli was introduced to India by the Portuguese explorer, Vasco-da-Gama who landed in 20th May, 1498. Chilli was introduced in China and spread further to Japan. Soon chilli was accepted as important spice in the local cuisines.

Chilli is an indispensable spice used as basic ingredient in everyday cuisine all over the world. The chilli powder is made by crushing the dried chilli having chilli flakes and chilli pods. The chilli powder began to be used to different countries.

The pungency of the chill is measure in Scoville scale. The hotness of the chilli is because the capsaicin present actually in the inner membrane placenta of the chilli and not in the chilli pods and chilli flakes as commonly believed. Named after the scientist Wilbur Scoville, the Scoville scale measures the hotness of the chilli. The pure capsaicin is 16,000,000 Scoville units. The hot chilli Red Savina habanero has 580,000 Scoville units. The hottest chilli on the Earth is called "Naga Jolokia" found in Tezpur laboratory by the scientist. It is also called Bih Jolokia meaning "Bih-poison" "Jolokia-chili pepper". Tezpur Chilli is said to be 855.000 Scoville units of capsaicin.

There are many common species of chilli including bell peppers, paprika, jalapenos, scotch bonnets, rocoto peppers, aji peppers, habanaeros, cayenne, and tabasco peppers. Here are the different varieties of chilli belonging to the common of species:

* Capsicum annum
Bell peppers, paprika, early, New Mexican, jalapenos, Cubanelle, Charleston hot cayenne, Fresno Chile, pimento, Bulgarian carrot chili, Peter pepper, ornamental piquin, tepin, Thai hot, and chiltepin.
* Capsicum frutenscens
Cayenne and tabasco peppers -.
* Capsicum chinense
Habaneros, Fatalii, and Scotch bonnets -
* Capsicum pubescens
Rocoto peppers
* Capsicum baccatum
Aji peppers


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